Fig.6: A tap (T) is used to form threads in the bone for placement of implant.  Drills and tap have to gently break the sinus floor (arrowheads) into the sinus so that the top end of the implant can be engaged into the tough portion of the bone for stability. 

Fig.7: A much smaller (6 mm) and shorter (11 mm) implant is placed (I).  The sinus floor has been raised like a rainbow (***).

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Xin Wei, DDS, PhD, MS 1st edition 03/31/2013, last revision 03/31/2013