Using smaller 1-piece implants (2.5 or 2.0 vs. 3 mm) with flap surgery should be able to prevent the complication.  The 72-year-old phobic patient declines any further treatment.  Two years later, she agrees to have treatment because of repeated infection (Fig.10).

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Xin Wei, DDS, PhD, MS 1st edition 12/14/2013, last revision 07/02/2018